ERA 21 - NO. 5, VOL. 2005
Work in Studios
Foster and Partners
Renewal of the Reduta Theatre in Brno
House in Mikolow
Damian Radwański, Roman Rutkowski
Central Park Prague
Entrance Building to the Punkva Caves
Stanislav Fiala, Daniela Polubědovová /D3A
Changing Role of Architect in the Society
Article in its first half explains the meaning of the sociological term „social role“ and stresses that architects have always had a broad set of roles. This set had been changing over the history; there were three major shifts in the history of an architect’s social role and standing. First came with individual authorship of building design brought around by renaissance and the existence of italian city-states. Second was a move caused by the industrial and political revolution, so-called dual revolution, in the 18th and 19th century leading to an explicite professionalization of occupations and to forming of new professions including architecture. And nowadays, the proces of shaping and development is influenced by changes within the economical and technical settings contemporary architects in western countries work in. To a certain extent some of the classical features of the architectural profession loose their importance due to the above mentioned changes in settings. Last part of the article deals with some particular features of the czech architects‘ position.
Work in Studios
The Odd Jobs show introduced works of young Czech architects who while working for big studios dedicate their free time to their own creative work. A small questionnaire attempts to find out how different designers perceive the advantages and disadvantages brought around by being employed in other designer’s studio and what they think about the conditions set for acquiring authorization in the Czech Republic.
Summer Study Stay at Massimiliano Fuksas in Rome
Lukáš Drasnar, a 2nd year student of architecture at the Technical University of Liberec, describes his experience from his three months long internship at Massimiliano Fuksas studio – how he got the scholarship, studio’s philosophy and projects he personally worked on. History of the studio is briefly mentioned too as well as other projects Drasnar could, thanks to his stay, get a deeper insight into and more involved with.
This article discusses the conflicting position of Louis Kahn´s major works from 1950, the spatial ordering systems and the design method he employed, and its inherent philosophy within both a modernist architectural tradition as well as that of late modernity.
The text traces Kahn´s journey from prewar social housing projects, in which he utilized an abstract vocabulary and “free plan”, to his later highly ordered, complex, and materially specific built forms. The article further discusses the parallel effects of his relentless deepening of articulation of form that brought Kahn to create landmarks of undeniable power resulting, at the same time, in costly buildings that were unsustainably strenuous to design.
It is argued that Kahn´s failure to secure corporate clients is symptomatic of a growing opposition to pre-modern values, to the intrinsically architectural themes inherent in his late work, and to a corporate culture that increasingly values speed, standardization, economy, and efficiency.
As much as Kahn´s quasi-mythical account of the nature of the public institutions was disproved by the post-1968 western cultural revolution, the aura of his buildings makes them persistently relevant and makes Kahn´s ouvre difficult to dismiss.
Commendation of Abundance. Architectural Symposium in Bechyne Monastery
Cyril Říha, Radka Schmelzová
Architects, theorists, historians and sociologists discuss student proposals for the adaptation of historical gardens belonging to a monastery in Bechyne and possibilities of its further use by non-governmental organizations and local primary art school. A stratified analysis of the place carried out by the students of Pennsylvania State University (USA) drew a lot of attention; so did other works too - an interesting proposal of hidden, into terrain embedded, designed objects from the students of architecture at Czech Technical University in Prague; challenging temporary pavilions from the students of the Faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Liberec or a sensitive historical approach of the students of landscape gardening at the Faculty of Horticulture in Lednice. A need for seeking a solution to redefining the park’s functions in the context of the whole town, especially the nearby square and local community arose as well.
An interview with Jerzy Ilkosz, Director of the Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw
The interview begins with Jerzy Ilkosz’s description of the history of the museum, its orientation and functioning. Recent exhibitions are also topic of discussion. Second part of the article has Ilkosz commenting on contemporary state of architecture in Poland, pointing out recent interesting achievments within the field. He also talks about the standard of polish theory of architecture.
Foil Isolations and their Further Use
Ladislav Štěpánek, Jaroslav Vošmera, Hana Kmínová
Article concentrates on bubble folies, it describes their characteristics and contemporary possibilities of use in building construction, in air-supported structures and in buildings with textile membrane shell. Along with the use it also reveals the measured values of the thermal conductivity coefficient and moisture resistance factor of the bubble folies comparing them with the qualities of usual thermal isolation materials.
Special and New Types of Fibreconcrete
Vít Petránek, Lucie Petránková
Most people imagine under the term concrete simple concrete or ferroconcrete. Materials called fibreconcrete belong also among concretes, they do, however, have different composition and in certain cases very different characteristic features too. The article describes the division of fibreconcretes and their basic characteristics. It describes two new and special types of fibreconcrete in close detail – the transparent concrete and flexible concrete.
Project of Moving Structure Based on Shape Memory Alloys
The design of the moving structure takes advantage of the Teflon foils and Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) NiTiCu – “intelligent material”. The reactions controlled by computer are caused by the various circuits which connect the members of spirals of SMAs. The members are covered by the layered Teflon foil which is welded to the shape which is determined by the critical shape of the whole structure.
The structure changes the shape continuously between the two critical positions. The SMAs change the shape according to the transformation temperature caused by the current passage and the deformation is about 5% but using spirals multiply the result. The structure could be packed and transported during the cold shape position.